Family Federation for World Peace and Unification | Wikipedia audio article

Family Federation for World Peace and Unification | Wikipedia audio article


The Unification movement, also known as the
Unification Church (UC), is a worldwide new religious movement whose members are sometimes
colloquially called “Moonies”. It was officially founded in 1954 under the name Holy Spirit
Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC) in Seoul, South Korea by Sun Myung
Moon, a Korean religious leader also known for his business ventures and engagement in
social and political causes. In 1994 the HSA-UWC was replaced by Moon with a new organization,
the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU). The movement is spiritually-based
and includes a number of legally independent organizations, including business, educational,
political, and other types of organizations.The beliefs of the Unification movement are based
on Moon’s book Divine Principle, which differs from the teachings of Nicene Christianity
on its view of Jesus and its introduction of the concept of “indemnity”. The best-known
ceremonies of the movement are its unique funerals and mass weddings.The Unification
movement has received strong criticism and has attracted numerous controversies, including
that of being a dangerous cult. Its beliefs have been criticized by both Jewish and Christian
scholars. Its involvement in politics, including anti-communism and support for Korean reunification,
has also been criticized. Moon and his wife, Hak Ja Han, were banned from entry into Germany
and the other 14 Schengen treaty countries, on the grounds that they were leaders of a
sect that endangered the personal and social development of young people.==Terminology==Moonie is a colloquial term sometimes used
to refer to members of the Unification movement. This is derived from the name of its founder
Sun Myung Moon, and was first used in 1974 by the American media. Unification movement
members have used the word Moonie, including Moon himself, the president of the Unification
Theological Seminary David Kim, and Bo Hi Pak, Moon’s aide and president of Little Angels
Children’s Folk Ballet of Korea. In the 1980s and 1990s the Unification Church of the United
States undertook an extensive public relations campaign against the use of the word by the
news media. In 1989 the Chicago Tribune was picketed after referring to members as “Moonies”.
Minister and civil rights leader James Bevel handed out fliers at the protest which said:
“Are the Moonies our new niggers?” On an October 6, 1994 broadcast of Nightline, host Ted Koppel
stated: “On last night’s program …I used the term ‘Moonies’. This is a label which
members of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon’s Unification Church find demeaning and offensive, and I’d
like to apologize for its use.” In other contexts it is still sometimes used and not always
considered pejorative.==History=====
Background and origins===On February 25, 1920, Sun Myung Moon was born
Mun Yong-myeong in modern-day Sangsa-ri (上思里), Deogun-myon, Jeongju-gun, North P’yŏng’an
Province, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule. Moon’s birthday was recorded as January
6 by the traditional lunar calendar (February 25, 1920, according to the Gregorian Calendar).
Around 1930 Moon’s family, who followed traditional Confucianist beliefs, converted to Christianity
and joined the Presbyterian Church, where he later taught Sunday school.Unification
Church members believe that Jesus appeared to Mun Yong-myong (his birth name) on Easter
Day in 1936, and asked him to accomplish the work left unfinished after his crucifixion.
After a period of prayer and consideration, Moon accepted the mission, later changing
his name to Mun Son-myong (Moon Sun-myung or Sun Myung Moon).In November 1943, Moon
married Sun Kil Choi.In 1943, Hak Ja Han, Moon’s future wife, was born in North Korea.After
World War II and the Japanese occupation ended in 1945, Moon began preaching his message.
In 1946, Moon traveled alone to Pyongyang in Communist-ruled North Korea. Moon was arrested
on allegations of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam
labor camp.In 1950, after serving 34 months of his sentence, Moon was released from North
Korea during the Korean War when United Nations troops advanced on the camp and the guards
fled. In 1953, Moon divorced Choi. It is also reported that he had a child with a different
woman in 1954.Moon’s teachings, called the Divine Principle, were first published as
Wonli Wonbon (원리 원본, “Original Text of the Divine Principle”) in 1945. The earliest
manuscript was lost in North Korea during the Korean War. A second, expanded version,
Wonli Hesol (원리 해설), or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was published in
1957. Its most propagated text, Exposition of the Divine Principle, was published in
1966. Moon built his first church as a refugee in Pusan.===Holy Spirit Association for the Unification
of World Christianity (1954–1994)===Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for
the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC) in Seoul on May 1, 1954. It expanded rapidly
in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 centers throughout the nation. The HSA-UWC
expanded throughout the world with most members living in South Korea, Japan, the Philippines,
and other nations in East Asia.In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to
America. Missionary work took place in Washington, DC, New York, and California. It found success
in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the HSA-UWC expanded in Oakland, Berkeley, and San Francisco.
By 1971, the HSA-UWC in the US had about 500 members. By 1973, it had some presence in
all 50 states and a few thousand members. In the 1970s, American HSA-UWC members were
noted for their enthusiasm and dedication, which often included raising money for UC
projects on so-called “mobile fundraising teams”.The HSA-UWC also sent missionaries
to Europe. They entered Czechoslovakia in 1968 and remained underground until the 1990s.
Unification movement activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work. Later,
the HSA-UWC made large investments in civic organizations and business projects, including
an international newspaper. Starting in the 1990s, the HSA-UWC expanded in Russia and
other former communist nations. Hak Ja Han, Moon’s wife, made a radio broadcast to the
nation from the State Kremlin Palace. As of 1994, the HSA-UWC had about 5,000 members
in Russia. About 500 Russian students had been sent to USA to participate in 40-day
workshops.Moon moved to the United States in 1971, although he remained a citizen of
the Republic of Korea. In the 1970s, he gave a series of public speeches in the United
States, including one in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1974; two in 1976 in Yankee
Stadium in New York City; and one on the grounds of the Washington Monument in Washington,
DC, where he spoke on “God’s Hope for America” to 300,000 people. In 1975, the HSA-UWC held
one of the largest peaceful gatherings in history, with 1.2 million people in Yeouido,
South Korea.In the 1970s the Unification movement, along with some other new religious movements,
became a target of the anti-cult movement. On the basis of theories that have not gained
acceptance in mainline social science, “anti-cult” activists accused the movement of having “brainwashed”
its members. At the same time, members reported that they were kidnapped and forcibly “deprogrammed”
by those who wanted to pull them out of the movement.In 1982, Moon was convicted in the
United States of filing false federal income tax returns and conspiracy: see United States
v. Sun Myung Moon. He served 13 months of the sentence at the Federal Correctional Institution,
Danbury. The case was protested as a case of selective prosecution and a threat to religious
freedom by, among others, Jerry Falwell, head of Moral Majority, Joseph Lowery, head of
the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Harvey Cox a Professor of Divinity at Harvard,
and Eugene McCarthy, United States Senator and former Democratic Party presidential candidate.Starting
in the 1980s Moon instructed HSA-UWC members to take part in a program called “Home Church”
in which they reached out to neighbors and community members through public service.
In 1991 Moon announced that Um members should return to their hometowns and undertake apostolic
work there. Massimo Introvigne, a scholar of new religious movements, said that this
confirmed that full-time membership is no longer considered crucial to movement members.===Family Federation for World Peace and
Unification (1994– )===On May 1, 1994 (the 40th anniversary of the
founding of the HSA-UWC), Moon declared that the era of the HSA-UWC had ended and inaugurated
a new organization: the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU) would
include HSA-UWC members and members of other religious organizations working toward common
goals, especially on issues of sexual morality and reconciliation between people of different
religions, nations, and races. The FFWPU co-sponsored Blessing ceremonies in which thousands of
couples from other churches and religions were given the marriage blessing previously
given only to HSA-UWC members.In 2000 the FFWPU co-sponsored the Million Family March,
a rally in Washington D.C. to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony, along
with the Nation of Islam. Louis Farrakhan was the main speaker at the event which was
held on October 16, 2000; the fifth anniversary of the Million Man March, which was also organized
by Farrakhan. FFWPU leader Dan Fefferman wrote to his colleagues acknowledging that Farrakhan’s
and Moon’s views differed on multiple issues but shared a view of a “God-centered family”.In
2003, Korean FFWPU members started a political party in South Korea, “The Party for God,
Peace, Unification, and Home.” An inauguration declaration stated the new party would focus
on preparing for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace. A FFWPU official
said that similar political parties would be started in Japan and the United States.
Since 2003, the FFWPU-related Universal Peace Federation’s Middle East Peace Initiative
has been organizing group tours of Israel and Palestine to promote understanding, respect,
and reconciliation among Jews, Muslims, and Christians.In 2004, at a ceremony on March
23 in the Dirksen Senate Office Building, in Washington, D.C., Moon crowned himself
with what was called the “Crown of Peace.” Lawmakers who attended included Senator Mark
Dayton (D-Minn.), Representatives Roscoe Bartlett (R-Md.) and Elijah Cummings (D-Md.), as well
as former Representative Walter Fauntroy (D-D.C.) . Key organizers of the event included George
Augustus Stallings, Jr., a former Roman Catholic priest who had been married by Moon, and Michael
Jenkins, the president of the Unification Church of the United States at that time.
Rep. Danny K. Davis played an active role in the ceremony.On August 15, 2012, Moon was
reported to be gravely ill and was put on a respirator at the intensive care unit of
St. Mary’s Hospital at The Catholic University of Korea in Seoul. He was admitted on August
14, 2012, after suffering from pneumonia earlier in the month. He died there on September 2.The
future of the Unification movement and its theological and institutional legacy is uncertain.==Beliefs==
The Unification movement is among the minority of new religious movements who have introduced
their own unique religious texts. The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle
(Korean: 원리강론; RR: Weolli Gangnon) is the main theological textbook of the movement.
It was co-written by Sun Myung Moon and early disciple Hyo Won’eu and first published in
1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973.
Followers take as a starting point the truth of the Christian Old and New Testaments, with
the Divine Principle an additional text that intends to interpret and “fulfill” the purpose
of those older texts. Moon was intent on replacing worldwide forms of Christianity with his new
unified vision of it, Moon being a self-declared messiah; in effect, the Second Coming of Jesus.
Moon’s followers regard him as a separate person from Jesus but with a mission to basically
continue and complete Jesus’s work in a new way, according to the Principle.The Divine
Principle lays out the core of UC theology, and is held by its believers to have the status
of holy scripture. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes (1) God’s
purpose in creating human beings, (2) the fall of man, and (3) restoration – the process
through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore
humanity back to the relationship and position that God originally intended.===Esotericism===
The Unification movement is sometimes said to be esoteric in that it keeps some of its
doctrines secret from nonmembers, a practice that is sometimes called “heavenly deception.”
In 1979, critics Tingle and Fordyce commented: “How different the openness of Christianity
is to the attitude of Reverend Moon and his followers who are often reluctant to reveal
to the public many of their basic doctrines.” Since the 1990s, many Unification texts that
were formerly regarded as esoteric have been posted on the Family Federation for World
Peace and Unification’s official websites.===View of Jesus===
Jesus has a great importance in the teachings of the Unification movement, although its
view of him differs from that of Nicene Christianity. Central to Unification teachings is the concept
that fallen humanity can be restored to God only through a messiah, who comes as a new
Adam to become the new head of the human race, replacing the sinful parents, through whom
mankind can be reborn into God’s family. According to the religion, Jesus is this messiah, but
his premature execution (before he could start a family) meant that his messianic role as
the head of a sinless new humanity was passed on to Moon.
In 1980 Unification theologian Young Oon Kim wrote: Unification theology teaches that Jesus came
to establish the kingdom of heaven on earth. As St. Paul wrote, Jesus was to be the new
Adam restoring the lost garden of Eden. For this purpose he chose twelve apostles, symbolizing
the original twelve tribes of Israel, and sent out seventy disciples, symbolizing all
the nations of the world. Like John the Baptist, Jesus proclaimed that the long-awaited kingdom
of heaven was at hand (Matt. 4:17). Jesus was appointed God’s earthly representative
in order to subjugate Satan, cleanse men of original sin and free them from the power
of evil. Christ’s mission involved liberation from sin and raising mankind to the perfection
stage. His purpose was to bring about the kingdom of heaven in our world with the help
of men filled with divine truth and love. Jesus’ goal was to restore the garden of Eden,
a place of joy and beauty in which true families of perfected parents would dwell with God
in a full relationship of reciprocal love. The Unification movement view of Jesus has
been criticized by mainstream Christian authors and theologians. In their influential book
The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K.
Zacharias disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of the divinity of Christ, the
virgin birth of Jesus, the Unification Church’s belief that Jesus should have married and
a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal Second Coming. They add: “Moon makes
all men equal in ‘divinity’ to Jesus, thereby striking a blow at the uniqueness of Christ.”
The Divine Principle responds to this criticism by saying: There is no greater value than that of a person
who has realized the ideal of creation. This is the value of Jesus, who surely attained
the highest imaginable value. The conventional Christian belief in Jesus’ divinity is well
founded because, as a perfect human being, Jesus is totally one with God. To assert that
Jesus is none other than a man who has completed the purpose of creation does not degrade the
value of Jesus in the least. Unificationist theologian Young Oon Kim wrote
and some members of the Unification movement believe that Zechariah was the father of Jesus
based on the work of, English Christian theologian in the liberal Protestant tradition, Leslie
Weatherhead.===Indemnity===
Indemnity, in the context of Unification theology, is a part of the process by which human beings
and the world are restored to God’s ideal. The concept of indemnity is explained at the
start of the second half of the Divine Principle, “Introduction to Restoration”: What, then, is the meaning of restoration
through indemnity? When someone has lost his original position or state, he must make some
condition to be restored to it. The making of such conditions of restitution is called
indemnity. …. God’s work to restore people to their true, unfallen state by having them
fulfill indemnity conditions is called the providence of restoration through indemnity.
The Divine Principle goes on to explain three types of indemnity conditions. Equal conditions
of indemnity pay back the full value of what was lost. The biblical verse “life for life,
eye for eye, tooth for tooth” (Exod.21:23-24) is quoted as an example of an equal indemnity
condition. Lesser conditions of indemnity provide a benefit greater than the price that
is paid. Faith, baptism, and the eucharist are mentioned as examples of lesser indemnity
conditions. Greater conditions of indemnity come about when a person fails in a lesser
condition. In that case a greater price must be paid to make up for the earlier failure.
Abraham’s attempted sacrifice of his son Isaac (Gen. 22:1-18) and the Israelites’ 40 years
of wandering in the wilderness under Moses (Num.14:34) are mentioned as examples of greater
indemnity conditions. The Divine Principle then explains that an indemnity condition
must reverse the course by which the mistake or loss came about. Indemnity, at its core,
is required of humans because God is pure, and purity cannot relate directly with impurity.
Indemnification is the vehicle that allows a “just and righteous” God to work through
mankind. Jesus’ statement that God had forsaken him (Matt.27:46) and Christianity’s history
of martyrdom are mentioned as examples of this. The Divine Principle then states that
human beings, not God or the angels, are the ones responsible for making indemnity conditions.In
2005 scholars Daske and Ashcraft explained the concept of indemnity: To restart the process toward perfection,
God has sent messiahs to earth who could restore the true state of humanity’s relationship
with God. Before that can happen, however, humans must perform good deeds that cancel
the bad effects of sin. Unificationists call this ‘indemnity’. Showing love and devotion
to one’s fellow humans, especially within families, helps pay this indemnity.
Other Christian commentators have criticized the concept of indemnity as being contrary
to the Christian doctrine of sola fide. Radio and television evangelist Bob Larson said,
“Moon’s doctrine of sinless perfection by ‘indemnity’, which can apply even to deceased
ancestors, is a denial of the salvation by grace offering through Jesus Christ.” Christian
historian Ruth Tucker said: “In simple language indemnity is salvation by works.” Donald Tingle
and Richard Fordyce, ministers with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) who debated two
Unification Church theologians in 1977, wrote: “In short, indemnity is anything you want
to make it, since you establish the conditions. The zeal and enthusiasm of the Unification
Church members is not so much based on love for God as it is compulsion to indemnify one’s
own sins.”===Science===
The relationship of the Unification movement and science has often been noted, by the news
media and by scholars of religion. The Divine Principle calls for the unification of science
and religion: “Religion and science, each in their own spheres, have been the methods
of searching for truth in order to conquer ignorance and attain knowledge. Eventually,
the way of religion and the way of science should be integrated and their problems resolved
in one united undertaking; the two aspects of truth, internal and external, should develop
in full consonance.”In the 1970s and 1980s the Unification movement sponsored the International
Conference on the Unity of the Sciences (ICUS), in order to promote the concept of the unity
of science and religion. American news media have suggested that the conferences were also
an attempt to improve the often controversial public image of the church. The first conference,
held in 1972, had 20 participants; while the largest conference, in Seoul, South Korea
in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries. Participants in one or more of
the conferences included Nobel laureates John Eccles (Physiology or Medicine 1963, who chaired
the 1976 conference) and Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963).The relationship of the Unification
movement and science again came to public attention in 2002 with the publication of
Icons of Evolution, a popular book critical of the teaching of evolution written by member
Jonathan Wells. Wells is a graduate of the Unification Theological Seminary and has been
active with the Discovery Institute as an advocate for intelligent design.===Blessing ceremony and views on sex and
family===The Unification movement is well known for
its wedding or wedding vow renewal ceremony. It is given to engaged or married couples.
Through it, members believe, the couple is removed from the lineage of sinful humanity
and engrafted into God’s sinless lineage. The Blessing ceremony was first held in 1961
for 36 couples in Seoul, South Korea by the Moons shortly after their own marriage in
1960. All the couples were members of the church. Rev. Moon matched all of the couples
except 12 who were already married to each other before joining the church. Moon’s practice
of matching couples was very unusual in both Christian tradition and in modern Western
culture and attracted much attention and controversy.Later Blessing ceremonies were larger in scale but
followed the same pattern. All participants were HSA-UWC members and Moon matched most
of the couples. In 1982 the first large scale Blessing (of 2,000 couples) outside of Korea
took place in Madison Square Garden, New York City. In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members
with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote
unity between the two nations. In 1992 Sun Myung Moon gave the wedding blessing for 30,000
couples at the Seoul Olympic Stadium and for 13,000 at the Yankee Stadium.Mary Farrell
Bednarowski says that marriage is “really the only sacrament” in the Unification movement.
Unificationists therefore view singleness as “not a state to be sought or cultivated”
but as preparation for marriage. Pre-marital celibacy and marital faithfulness are emphasized.
Adherents may be taught to “abstain from intimate relations for a specified time after marriage.”
The church does not give its marriage blessing to same-sex couples.
Moon has emphasized the similarity between Unification views of sexuality and evangelical
Christianity, “reaching out to conservative Christians in this country in the last few
years by emphasizing shared goals like support for sexual abstinence outside of marriage,
and opposition to homosexuality.”===
Funeral ceremony===A Unification funeral (or seungwha) is a funeral
ceremony for the purpose of aiding the deceased person’s transition to the spirit world and
to celebrate his or her life among family and friends.====Theological basis====
Unification movement scholars writing on the church’s funeral customs cite the Divine Principle
which says: “Man, upon his death, after his life in the visible world, goes to the invisible
world in a spiritual body, having taken off his ‘clothes of flesh’ (Job 10:11), and lives
there forever.” They also note that family and other human relationships continue after
death. The Unification movement does not uphold belief in reincarnation or eternal damnation.
Unification theologian Young Oon Kim writes: “You and I are going to live forever. What
does immortality signify? We are thinking animals and loving creatures. Those two faculties
show our kinship to the eternal God. They make us part of the infinite spirit world.
We will think and we will love forever. Thus, our wisdom will continually grow and our love
can be enriched more and more. This is what Swedenborg taught. There will be no sharp
break between life here and life hereafter. What we start here continues in quality and
expands infinitely. The ever living God creates each of us to have fellowship with Him forever.”====
Funeral Ceremony====The seungwha ceremony was introduced by Sun
Myung Moon in 1984, at the time of the death of his son Heung Jin Moon. Members who had
died prior to this were given traditional Christian funerals. When the new and more
distinct format was ordained, the official church newspaper reported: “The use of the Chinese character meaning
‘Seung Hwa’ is new and unique to this ceremony and is not commonly used. The character for
‘seung’ means ‘ascending, elevation’. The character ‘hwa’ has meanings of ‘harmony and
peace.’ The use of ‘seung hwa’ was first instructed by Father at this time.”The ceremony itself
consists of three parts: The Gwi Hwan Ceremony (or “returning to joy”), a farewell prayer
service held by family members and close friends; the Seung Hwa Ceremony, (or “ascension and
harmony”), a public ceremony celebrating the person’s life featuring songs, testimonies,
and an address most often by a church pastor; and the Won Jeun Ceremony (or “returning home/to
the palace”), the burial service. It is emphasized that the ceremony should have a joyful atmosphere
since it is a celebration of the person’s life and his or her transition to the spirit
world. White and light colored clothing, rather than the traditional black, is worn by participants.The
body is buried in the person’s holy robe, with a copy of the Divine Principle, and the
coffin draped with the Unification flag. Cremation is discouraged in the Unification movement,
although it is sometimes practiced especially in Japan where it is required by law. Unification
cemeteries, or sections of existing facilities, have been established in South Korea, the
United Kingdom and the United States.==Scholarly studies==
In the early 1960s John Lofland lived with HSA-UWC missionary Young Oon Kim and a small
group of American members and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs
and win new members. Lofland noted that most of their efforts were ineffective and that
most of the people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members,
often family relationships. Lofland published his findings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis
entitled “The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes”, and in 1966 in book form
by Prentice-Hall as Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance
of Faith.In 1977 Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister
in the United Church of Christ., spent 10 months visiting HSA-UWC members in North America,
Europe, and Asia as well as interviewing Moon at his home in New York State. He reported
his findings and observations in Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, published
by Abingdon Press. The book also provides an overview of Unification Church beliefs.
In an interview with UPI Sontag compared the HSA-UWC with The Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints and said that he expected its practices to conform more to mainstream
American society as its members become more mature. He added that he did not want to be
considered an apologist but a close look at HSA-UWC’s theology is important: “They raise
some incredibly interesting issues.”In 1984 Eileen Barker published The Making of a Moonie
based on her seven-year study of HSA-UWC members in the United Kingdom and the United States.
In 2006 Laurence Iannaccone of George Mason University, a specialist in the economics
of religion, wrote that The Making of a Moonie was “one of the most comprehensive and influential
studies” of the process of conversion to new religious movements. Australian psychologist
Len Oakes and British psychiatry professor Anthony Storr, who have written rather critically
about cults, gurus, new religious movements, and their leaders have praised The Making
of a Moonie. It was given the Distinguished Book Award for 1985 by the Society for the
Scientific Study of Religion.In 1987, scholars with American Psychological Association rejected
the hypotheses of those who accused new religious movements (such as the HSA-UWC) of brainwashing
and coercive persuasion, stating that those “conclusions…cannot be said to be scientific
in any meaningful sense”.In 1998 Irving Louis Horowitz, sociologist, questioned the relationship
between the HSA-UWC and scholars whom it paid to conduct research on its behalf.==Relations and differences with other religions
=====
Judaism===The relationship between the Unification movement
and Judaism has been marked by controversy. In 1976 the American Jewish Committee released
a report by Rabbi A. James Rudin which stated that Divine Principle contained “pejorative
language, stereotyped imagery, and accusations of collective sin and guilt.” In a news conference
presented by the AJC and representatives of Catholic and Protestant churches, panelists
stated that the text “contained over 125 anti-Jewish references.” They noted Moon’s public then-recent
condemnation of “antisemitic and anti-Christian attitudes”, and called upon him to make a
“comprehensive and systematic removal” of antisemitic and anti-Christian references
in the Divine Principle as a demonstration of good faith.In 1977 the HSA-UWC issued a
rebuttal to the report, stating that it was neither comprehensive nor reconciliatory,
but rather had a “hateful tone” and was filled with “sweeping denunciations.” It denied that
the Divine Principle teaches antisemitism and gave detailed responses to 17 specific
allegations contained in the AJC’s report, stating that allegations were distortions
of teaching and obscuration of real passage content or that the passages were accurate
summaries of Jewish scripture or New Testament passages.In 1984 Mose Durst, then the president
of the Unification Church of the United States and himself a convert from Judaism, said that
the Jewish community had been “hateful” in its response to the growth of the Unification
movement, and placed blame both on the community’s “insecurity” and on Unification Church members’
“youthful zeal and ignorance.” Rudin, then the national interreligious affairs director
of the American Jewish Committee, said that Durst’s remarks were inaccurate and unfair
and that “hateful is a harsh word to use.” In the same year Durst wrote in his autobiography:
“Our relations with the Jewish community have been the most painful to me personally. I
say this with a heavy heart, since I was raised in the Jewish faith and am proud of my heritage.”In
1989 movement leaders Peter Ross and Andrew Wilson issued “Guidelines for Members of The
Unification Church in Relations with the Jewish People” which stated: “In the past there have
been serious misunderstandings between Judaism and the Unification Church. In order to clarify
these difficulties and guide Unification Church members in their relations with Jews, the
Unification Church suggests the following guidelines.”===
Mainstream Christianity===The relationship between the Unification movement
and mainstream Christianity has been marked by conflict and disagreement, as well as by
cooperation at times. The movement’s teachings are based on the Bible, but include new interpretations
not found in mainstream Christian tradition. Mainstream Christianity is usually defined
as those Christian churches which follow the Nicene Creed and includes the Roman Catholic,
Eastern Orthodox, and most Protestant churches.From its beginning the Unification movement has
claimed to be Christian and has tried to promote its teachings to mainstream Christian churches
and organizations. The Unification Church in South Korea was labeled as heretical by
Protestant churches in South Korea, including Moon’s own Presbyterian Church. In the United
States the church was rejected by ecumenical organizations as being non-Christian. The
main objections against it were theological, especially because of the Unification Church’s
addition of material to the Bible and for its rejection of a literal Second Coming of
Jesus. Protestant commentators have also criticized Unification Church teachings as being contrary
to the Protestant doctrine of salvation by faith alone. In their influential book The
Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K. Zacharias
disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of Christology, the virgin birth of
Jesus, the movement’s belief that Jesus should have married, the necessity of the crucifixion
of Jesus, and a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal Second Coming.In 1974
Moon founded the Unification Theological Seminary, in Barrytown, New York, partly in order to
improve relations of the movement with other churches. Professors from other denominations,
including a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest, as well as a
rabbi, were hired to teach religious studies to the students, who were being trained as
leaders in the movement.In 1977, Unification member Jonathan Wells, who later became well
known as the author of the popular Intelligent Design book Icons of Evolution, defended Unification
theology against what he said were unfair criticisms by the National Council of Churches.
That same year Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister
in the United Church of Christ, published Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church
which gave an overview of the movement and urged Christians to take it more seriously.In
1982, Moon was imprisoned in the United States after being found guilty by a jury of willfully
filing false Federal income tax returns and conspiracy. (See: United States vs. Sun Myung
Moon) HSA-UWC members launched a public-relations campaign. Booklets, letters and videotapes
were mailed to approximately 300,000 Christian leaders in the United States. Many of them
signed petitions protesting the government’s case. Among the American Christian leaders
who spoke out in defense of Moon were conservative Jerry Falwell, head of Moral Majority, and
liberal Joseph Lowery, head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The American
Baptist Churches in the U.S.A, the National Council of Churches, the National Black Catholic
Clergy Caucus, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference filed briefs in support
of Moon.In the 1980s the Unification movement sent thousands of American ministers from
other churches on trips to Japan and South Korea to inform them about Unification teachings.
At least one minister was dismissed by his congregation for taking part. In 1994 the
church had about 5,000 members in Russia and came under criticism from the Russian Orthodox
Church. In 1997, the Russian government passed a law requiring the movement and other non-Russian
religions to register their congregations and submit to tight controls.In 1995 the Unification
movement related organization the Women’s Federation for World Peace indirectly contributed
$3.5 million to help Baptist Liberty University which at that time was in financial difficulty.
This was reported in the United States news media as an example of closer relationships
between the movement and conservative Christian congregations.In 2001, the Unification movement
came into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church when Catholic archbishop Emmanuel Milingo
and Maria Sung, a 43-year-old Korean acupuncturist, married in a Blessing ceremony, presided over
by Rev. and Mrs. Moon. Following his marriage the Archbishop was called to the Vatican by
Pope John Paul II, where he was asked not to see his wife anymore, and to move to a
Capuchin monastery. Sung went on a hunger strike to protest their separation. This attracted
much media attention. Milingo is now an advocate of the removal of the requirement for celibacy
by priests in the Catholic Church. He is the founder of Married Priests Now!. Archbishop
George Augustus Stallings, Jr., also a former Catholic priest, who had founded his own Imani
Temple African-American Catholic Congregation, is also a supporter of the organization.In
2003 Moon began his “tear down”, or “take down the cross” campaign. The campaign was
begun in the belief that the cross is a reminder of Jesus’ pain and has been a source of division
between people of different faiths. The campaign included a burial ceremony for the cross and
a crown to be put in its place. The American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC), an interfaith
group founded by Moon, spearheaded the effort, calling the cross a symbol of oppression and
superiority.===Islam===
The relationship between the Unification movement and Islam has often been noted, both by scholars
and the news media. The Divine Principle lists the Muslim world as one of the world’s four
major divisions (the others being East Asia, Hindu, and Christendom). In 1997, Louis Farrakhan,
the leader of the Nation of Islam, a Black Muslim organization, served as a coofficiator
at a Blessing Ceremony presided over by Moon and Han. In 2000 the Unification movement
and the Nation of Islam co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington, D.C.,
to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony.Unification movement support for Islamist
anti-communists came to public attention in 1987 when church member Lee Shapiro was killed
in Afghanistan during the Soviet–Afghan War while filming a documentary. The resistance
group they were traveling with reported that they had been ambushed by military forces
of the Soviet Union or the Afghan government. However, the details have been questioned,
partly because of the poor reputation of the group’s leader, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.In 1997,
the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (which is critical of United States and Israeli
policies), praised the Unification movement owned newspaper, The Washington Times and
the Times’ sister publication The Middle East Times (along with The Christian Science Monitor
owned by the Church of Christ, Scientist) for their objective and informative coverage
of Islam and the Middle East, while criticizing the Times generally pro-Israel editorial policy.
The Report suggested that these newspapers, being owned by religious organizations, were
less influenced by pro-Israel pressure groups in the United States.In 1997, Louis Farrakhan,
the leader of The Nation of Islam, served as a “co-officiator” at a blessing ceremony
presided over by Sun Myung Moon and Hak Ja Han. In 2000 the FFWPU co-sponsored the Million
Family March, a rally in Washington D.C. to celebrate family unity and racial and religious
harmony, along with the Nation of Islam. Farrakhan was the main speaker at the event which was
held on October 16, 2000; the fifth anniversary of the Million Man March, which was also organized
by Farrakhan. Unification Church leader Dan Fefferman wrote to his colleagues acknowledging
that Farrakhan’s and Moon’s views differed on multiple issues but shared a view of a
“God-centered family”. In 2007 Rev and Mrs Moon sent greetings to Farrakhan while he
was recovering from cancer, saying: “We send love and greetings to Minister Farrakhan and
Mother Khadijah.”In the 1990s and 2000s the Unification movement made public statements
claiming communications with the spirits of religious leaders including Muhammad and also
Confucius, the Buddha, Jesus, and Augustine, as well as political leaders such as Karl
Marx, Friedrich Engels, Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky, Mao Zedong, and many more. This
was reported to have distanced the movement from Islam as well as from mainstream Christianity.
From 2001 to 2009 the Unification movement owned the American Life TV Network (now known
as Youtoo TV), which in 2007 broadcast George Clooney’s documentary, A Journey to Darfur,
which was harshly critical of Islamists in Darfur, the Republic of Sudan. It released
the film on DVD in 2008 and announced that proceeds from its sale would be donated to
the International Rescue Committee. In his 2009 autobiography Moon praised Islam and
expressed the hope that there would be more understanding between different religious
communities. In 2011 representatives of the Unification Church took part in an international
seminar held in Taiwan by the Muslim World League. The purpose of the seminar was said
to be to encourage inter-faith dialogue and discourage terrorism.===Interfaith activities===
In 2009 the FFWPU held an interfaith event in the Congress of the Republic of Peru. Former
President of the Congress Marcial Ayaipoma and other notable politicians were called
“Ambassadors for Peace” of the Unification Church. In 2010, the church built a large
interfaith temple in Seoul. Author Deepak Chopra was the keynote at an interfaith event
of the Unification Church cohosted with the United Nations at the Headquarters of the
United Nations. In 2011, an interfaith event was held in the National Assembly of Thailand,
the President of the National Assembly of Thailand attended the event. In 2012, the
Unification Church-affiliated Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith dialogue in
Italy that was cosponsored by United Nations. That year, Unification movement affiliated
Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith program for representatives of 12 various
religions and confessions in the hall of the United Nations General Assembly. The President
of the United Nations General Assembly, the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations,
the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations and other UN officials
spoke.==Political activism=====Anti-communism===
In the 1940s, Moon cooperated with Communist Party members in the Korean independence movement
against Imperial Japan. However, after the Korean War (1950–1953), he became an outspoken
anti-communist. During the Cold War the Unification movement was criticized by both the mainstream
media and the alternative press for its anti-communist activism, which many said could lead to World
War Three and a nuclear holocaust. The movement’s anti-communist activities received financial
support from controversial Japanese millionaire and activist Ryōichi Sasakawa.In 1972, Moon
predicted the decline of communism, based on the teachings of the Divine Principle:
“After 7,000 biblical years—6,000 years of restoration history plus the millennium,
the time of completion—communism will fall in its 70th year. Here is the meaning of the
year 1978. Communism, begun in 1917, could maintain itself approximately 60 years and
reach its peak. So 1978 is the border line and afterward communism will decline; in the
70th year it will be altogether ruined. This is true. Therefore, now is the time for people
who are studying communism to abandon it.” In 1973, he called for an “automatic theocracy”
to replace communism and solve “every political and economic situation in every field.”In
1974, Moon asked members in the United States to support President Richard Nixon during
the Watergate scandal when Nixon was being pressured to resign his office. They prayed
and fasted in support of Nixon for three days in front of the United States Capitol, under
the motto: “Forgive, Love and Unite.” On February 1, 1974, Nixon publicly thanked them for their
support and officially received Moon. This brought the movement into widespread public
and media attention. In 1976, church president Neil Albert Salonen met with Senator Bob Dole
to defend the HSA–UWC against charges made by its critics, including parents of some
members.In 1976, Moon established News World Communications, an international news media
conglomerate which publishes The Washington Times newspaper in Washington D.C. and newspapers
in South Korea, Japan, and South America, partly in order to promote political conservatism.
According to The Washington Post: “…the Times was established by Moon to combat communism
and be a conservative alternative to what he perceived as the liberal bias of The Washington
Post.” Bo Hi Pak, called Moon’s “right-hand man”, was the founding president and the founding
chairman of the board. Moon asked Richard L. Rubenstein, a controversial rabbi and college
professor who had written on the Holocaust, to join its board of directors. The Washington
Times has often been noted for its generally pro-Israel editorial policies. In 2002, during
the 20th anniversary party for the Times, Moon said, “The Washington Times will become
the instrument in spreading the truth about God to the world.”In 1977, the Subcommittee
on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, of the United
States House of Representatives, found that the South Korean intelligence agency, the
KCIA, had used the movement to gain political influence with the United States and that
some members had worked as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean
Cultural Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which acted as a public diplomacy campaign
for the Republic of Korea. The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the
Unification Church’s campaign in support of Nixon.In 1980, members founded CAUSA International,
an anti-communist educational organization based in New York City. In the 1980s, it was
active in 21 countries. In the United States, it sponsored educational conferences for evangelical
and fundamentalist Christian leaders as well as seminars and conferences for Senate staffers,
Hispanic Americans and conservative activists. In 1986, CAUSA International sponsored the
documentary film Nicaragua Was Our Home, about the Miskito Indians of Nicaragua and their
persecution at the hands of the Nicaraguan government. It was filmed and produced by
USA-UWC member Lee Shapiro, who later died while filming with anti-Soviet forces during
the Soviet–Afghan War.In 1980, members in Washington, D.C. disrupted a protest rally
against the United States military draft. In 1981, the Appellate Division of New York
State Supreme Court ruled that the HSA–UWC was not entitled to property tax exemptions
on its New York City properties since its primary purpose was political, not religious.
In 1982, this ruling was overturned by the New York State Supreme Court itself, which
ruled that it should be considered a religious organization for tax purposes.In 1983, some
American members joined a public protest against the Soviet Union over its shooting down of
Korean Airlines Flight 007. In 1984, the HSA–UWC founded the Washington Institute for Values
in Public Policy, a Washington D.C. think tank that underwrites conservative-oriented
research and seminars at Stanford University, the University of Chicago, and other institutions.
In the same year, member Dan Fefferman founded the International Coalition for Religious
Freedom in Virginia, which is active in protesting what it considers to be threats to religious
freedom by governmental agencies. In August 1985, seven years before the fall of Soviet
Union, the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored
a conference in Geneva to debate the theme “The situation in the world after the fall
of the communist empire.”===
Post-Cold War era===In April 1990, Moon visited the Soviet Union
and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev. Moon expressed support for the political and
economic transformations underway in the Soviet Union. At the same time, the movement was
expanding into formerly communist nations.In 1994, The New York Times recognized the movement’s
political influence, saying it was “a theocratic powerhouse that is pouring foreign fortunes
into conservative causes in the United States.” In 1998, the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram criticized
Moon’s “ultra-right leanings” and suggested a personal relationship with conservative
Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.In 1995, the former U.S. President George H.
W. Bush and his wife, Barbara Bush, spoke at a FFWPU event in the Tokyo Dome. “If as
president I could have done one thing to have helped the country more,” Mr. Bush told the
gathering, “it would have been to do a better job in finding a way, either through speaking
out or through raising a moral standard, to strengthen the American family.” Hak Ja Han,
the main speaker, credited her husband with bringing about Communism’s fall and declared
that he must save America from “the destruction of the family and moral decay.”In 2000, Moon
founded the World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations (WANGO), which describes itself
as “a global organization whose mission is to serve its member organizations, strengthen
and encourage the non-governmental sector as a whole, increase public understanding
of the non-governmental community, and provide the mechanism and support needed for NGOs
to connect, partner, and multiply their contributions to solve humanity’s basic problems.” However,
it has been criticized for promoting conservatism in contrast to some of the ideals of the United
Nations.In 2003, Korean FFWPU members started a political party in South Korea. It was named
“The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home”. In an inauguration declaration, the
new party said it would focus on preparing for the reunification of South and North Korea
by educating the public about God and peace. A church official said that similar political
parties would be started in Japan and the United States.Moon was a member of the Honorary
Committee of the Unification Ministry of the Republic of Korea. The church member Jae-jung
Lee had been once a unification minister of the Republic of Korea. Another, Ek Nath Dhakal,
is a member of the Nepalese Constituent Assembly, and a first Minister for Co-operatives and
Poverty Alleviation Ministry of the Government of Nepal. In 2016, a study sponsored by the
Unification Theological Seminary found that American members were divided in their choices
in the 2016 United States presidential election, with the largest bloc supporting Senator Bernie
Sanders.===North Korea===
Moon’s teachings were strongly anti-communist and viewed the Cold War between democracy
and communism as the final conflict between God and Satan, with divided Korea as its primary
front line. Soon after its founding the Unification movement began supporting anti-communist organizations,
including the World League for Freedom and Democracy founded in 1966 in Taipei, Republic
of China (Taiwan), by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Korean Culture and Freedom Foundation,
an international public diplomacy organization which also sponsored Radio Free Asia. In 1975
Moon spoke at a government sponsored rally against potential North Korean military aggression
on Yeouido Island in Seoul to an audience of around 1 million.In 1991, Moon met with
Kim Il-sung, the North Korean President, to discuss ways to achieve peace on the Korean
Peninsula, as well as on international relations, tourism, and other topics. In 1994, Moon was
officially invited to the funeral of Kim Il-sung, in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations
between North Korea and South Korea. In 1992, Kim gave his first and only interview with
the Western news media to Washington Times reporter Josette Sheeran (who later became
Executive Director of the United Nations World Food Programme). In 1994, Moon was officially
invited to Kim’s funeral, in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between North
Korea and South Korea.In 1998, Unification movement-related businesses launched operations
in North Korea with the approval of the government of South Korea, which had prohibited business
relationships between North and South before. In 2000, the church-associated business group
Tongil Group founded Pyeonghwa Motors in the North Korean port of Nampo, in cooperation
with the North Korean government. It was the first automobile factory in North Korea.During
the presidency of George W. Bush, Dong Moon Joo, a Unification movement member and then
president of The Washington Times, undertook unofficial diplomatic missions to North Korea
in an effort to improve its relationship with the United States. Joo was born in North Korea
and is a citizen of the United States.In 2003, Korean Unification movement members started
a political party in South Korea. It was named “The Party for God, Peace, Unification and
Home”. In its inauguration declaration, the new party said it would focus on preparing
for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace. Moon was a member
of the Honorary Committee of the Unification Ministry of the Republic of Korea. Church
member Jae-jung Lee was a Unification Minister of the Republic of Korea.In 2010, in Pyongyang,
to mark the 20th anniversary of Moon’s visit to Kim Il-sung, de jure President Kim Yong-nam
hosted Moon’s son Hyung Jin Moon, then the president of the Unification Church, in his
official residence. At that time, Hyung Jin Moon donated 600 tons of flour to the children
of Jeongju, the birthplace of Sun Myung Moon.In 2012, Moon was posthumously awarded North
Korea’s National Reunification Prize. On the first anniversary of Moon’s death, North Korean
president Kim Jong-un expressed condolences to Han and the family, saying: “Kim Jong-un
prayed for the repose of Moon, who worked hard for national concord, prosperity and
reunification and world peace.” In 2017, the Unification Church sponsored the International
Association of Parliamentarians for Peace (IAPP) – headed by former Prime Minister
of Nepal Madhav Kumar Nepal and former Minister of Peace and Reconstruction Ek Nath Dhakal
–, visited Pyongyang and had constructive talks with the Korean Workers’ Party.==Organisations==
Although Rev. Moon was commonly known as a religious figure, commentators have mentioned
his belief in a literal Kingdom of God on earth to be brought about by human effort
as a motivation for his establishment of multitudinous groups that are not strictly religious in
their purposes. Moon was not directly involved with managing the day-to-day activities of
the numerous organizations that he indirectly oversaw, yet all of them attribute the inspiration
behind their work to his leadership and teachings. Others have said that one purpose of these
non-sectarian organizations is to pursue social respectability. These organizations have sometimes
been labeled “front groups”, an expression which originally referred to Soviet supported
organizations during the Cold War.===Multi-faceted organizations=======
CARP====The Collegiate Association for the Research
of Principles (CARP) is a collegiate organization founded by Moon and his followers in 1955,
which promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the
Unification world view. J. Isamu Yamamoto states in Unification Church: “At times CARP
has been very subtle about its association with the Unification Church, however, the
link between the two has always been strong, since the purpose of both is to spread Moon’s
teachings.”====Family Peace Association====
The Family Peace Association, founded by Moon’s eldest living son, Hyun Jin Moon. It has the
mission: “To enlighten humanity by uplifting their spiritual consciousness through universal
principles and values rooted in God-centered families.” Its founders are Hyun Jin Moon
and Junsook Moon.====Universal Peace Federation====
The Universal Peace Federation is an international organization which promotes religious freedom.
Dialogue and Alliance is its journal published from Tarrytown, New York.====Women’s Federation for World Peace====The Women’s Federation for World Peace was
founded in 1992 by Hak Ja Han. Its stated purpose is to encourage women to work more
actively in promoting peace in their communities and greater society. It has members in 143
countries.Han has traveled the world speaking at conventions on the WFWP’s behalf. In 1993
the WFWP held a conference in Tokyo, Japan at which the keynote speaker was former U.S.
Vice President Dan Quayle’s wife Marilyn Tucker Quayle, and in a speech at the event Han spoke
positively of Mrs. Quayle’s humanitarian work.In 1993 Han traveled to 20 cities in the United
States promoting the WFWP, as well as to 12 countries. At an event in Salt Lake City,
Utah she told attendants: “If a family is not centered on God’s ideal of love, there
will be conflict among the members of that family. Without God’s love as an absolute
center, such a family will ultimately break down. A nation of such families will also
decline.” Her 1993 speeches in the United States focused on increasing violence in the
U.S., and the degradation of the family unit.In 1995 the WFWP generated controversy when it
indirectly contributed $3.5 million to help Liberty University, which at that time was
in financial difficulty. This was reported in the United States news media as an example
of closer relationships between the Unification movement and conservative Christian congregations.
That same year former United States president George H. W. Bush spoke at several WFWP meetings
in Japan, and at a related conference in Washington D.C.. There he was quoted by The New York
Times as saying: “If as president I could have done one thing to have helped the country
more it would have been to do a better job in finding a way, either through speaking
out or through raising a moral standard, to strengthen the American family.”The events
in Japan drew protests from Japanese people who were wary of unorthodox religious groups.
Bush’s spokesperson Jane Becker stated “We were satisfied that there was not a connection
with the Unification Church, and based on the information we were given we felt comfortable
speaking to this group.” 50,000 people attended Bush’s speech in Tokyo. The theme of the talks
was “family values”. In the half-hour speech, Bush said “what really counts is faith, family
and friends”. Bush also spoke on the importance of the relationship between Japan and the
United States and its importance for world peace. Han spoke after Bush’s speech and praised
Moon, crediting him for the decline of communism and saying that he must save America from
“the destruction of the family and moral decay.”In 1999 the WFWP sponsored a conference in Malaysia
in which religious and government leaders spoke on the need to strengthen education
and support families, as well as the need for peace and understanding between ethnic
and racial groups in the nations. In 2009 it co-sponsored, along with the Unification
movement affiliated organization the Universal Peace Federation and the government of Taiwan,
a conference in Taipei calling for Taiwan’s greater participation in world affairs independent
of the People’s Republic of China. Taiwan’s president, Ma Ying-jeou, spoke at the event.
The WFWP has also been active in sponsoring various local charity and community events.====Service for Peace====
Service For Peace (SFP) is a non-profit organization, founded in 2002 by Sun Myung Moon, to give
opportunities to young people who wish to better themselves and their communities. As
of April 2007, the organization had established chapters in North America, Central America,
Caribbean, Europe, Asia, Africa and Oceania. SFP is active in communities and statewide.
Colleges have recruited Service for Peace Campus Corps to benefit their fellow peers
as well as the communities around them. Some SFP chapters have smaller initiatives designed
to meet local needs. In the US, Service For Peace’s Backpack Angel program supports students
throughout Kentucky by providing backpacks and school supplies for children in need.====International Conference on the Unity
of the Sciences====International Conference on the Unity of the
Sciences (ICUS) is a series of conferences formerly sponsored by the International Cultural
Foundation and since 2017 by the Hyo Jeong International Foundation on the Unity of the
Sciences (HJIFUS). The first conference, held in 1972, had 20 participants; while the largest
conference, in Seoul, South Korea in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries.Participants
in one or more of the conferences included Nobel laureates John Eccles (Physiology or
Medicine 1963, who chaired the 1976 conference),Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963), economist and political
philosopher Friedrich Hayek, ecologist Kenneth Mellanby, Frederick Seitz, pioneer of solid
state physics, Ninian Smart, President of the American Academy of Religion, and Holocaust
theologian Richard Rubenstein,Moon believed that religion alone can not save the world,
and his particular belief in the importance of the unity of science and religion was reportedly
a motivation for the founding of the ICUS. American news media have suggested that the
conferences were also an attempt to improve the often controversial Unification movement’s
public image.The last two editions of the conference have focused on environmental issues,
such as rising sea levels and water temperatures, food scarcity, renewable energy, and waste
management. The theme in 2017, at ICUS XXIII, was “Earth’s Environmental Crisis and the
Role of Science,” with a similar theme following at ICUS XXIV, in 2018: “Scientific Solutions
to the Earth’s Environmental Challenges.”===
Interfaith organizations===The Assembly of the World’s Religions was
founded by Sun Myung Moon. The first assembly was held from November 15 to 21, 1985, in
MacAfee, New Jersey. The second was from August 15 to 21, 1990 in San Francisco.
Inter-Religious Federation for World Peace American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC)
The Middle East Peace Initiative sponsors projects to promote peace and understanding
including visits by international Christians to Israel and Palestine and dialogues between
members of the Israeli Knesset and the Palestinian Legislative Council.===Educational organizations===
Cheongshim Graduate School of Theology CheongShim International Academy
International Educational Foundation. New World Encyclopedia — an Internet encyclopedia
that, in part, selects and rewrites certain Wikipedia articles through a focus on Unification
values. It “aims to organize and present human knowledge in ways consistent with our natural
purposes” and “to promote knowledge that leads to happiness, well-being, and world peace.”
Paragon House, book publishing. The Professors World Peace Academy was founded
in 1973 by Sun Myung Moon, who declared the group’s intent to “contribute to the solutions
of urgent problems facing our modern civilization and to help resolve the cultural divide between
East and West”. PWPA now has chapters in over one hundred countries.
Sun Hwa Arts School Sun Moon University
Sun Myung Moon Institute High School of the Pacific in Kealakekua,
Hawaii The Unification Theological Seminary (UTS)
is the main seminary of the international Unification movement. It is located in Barrytown,
New York, and with an Extension Center in midtown Manhattan. Its purpose has been described
as training leaders and theologians within the movement. The seminary’s first classes
were offered in September 1975. The institution’s regional accreditation by the Middle States
Commission on Higher Education first granted in 1996 was reaffirmed in 2016. While most
of the UTS’s students have been Unification Church members, a growing number come from
diverse churches and faiths. The seminary’s professors come from a wide range of faiths,
including a Rabbi, a Sheikh, a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest.
In 2003, the seminary had about 120 students from around the world, with most coming from
South Korea and Japan, which have large numbers of Unification Church members.
Blessed Teens Academy—Greeley, Colorado New Hope Academy—Landover Hills, Maryland,
USA. “Although New Hope Academy was founded in 1990 by members of the Unification movement,
it is not a sectarian school. No doctrines are taught; in fact, no classes in religion
are offered.However morning services are mandatory, during services discussions about religious
doctrines, hymns, and group prayers all take place. We believe it is the job of parents—with
the support of their church, temple, or mosque—to impart their personal faith to their child.”
WUF – World University Federation Several UC-related groups are working to promote
sexual abstinence until marriage and fidelity in marriage and to prevent child exploitation;
they care for victims of Thailand’s sex trade as well. In 1996, members of the Unification
Church gathered 3,500 signatures in an anti-pornography campaign.===Organizations in the arts===
Kirov Academy of Ballet, dance school in Washington DC.
Korean Cultural Foundation Little Angels Children’s Folk Ballet of
Korea: The Little Angels Children’s Folk Ballet of Korea is a dance troupe founded in 1962
by Moon and other UC members to project a positive image of South Korea to the world.
In 1973 they performed at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York City. The
group’s dances are based on Korean legends and regional dances, and its costumes on traditional
Korean styles. Manhattan Center, Theater and recording studio
in New York City. New York City Symphony
One Way Productions, movie production company. The Universal Ballet, founded South Korea
in 1984, is one of only four professional ballet companies in South Korea. The company
performs a repertory that includes many full length classical story ballets, together with
shorter contemporary works and original full-length Korean ballets created especially for the
company. It is supported by UC members with Moon’s daughter-in-law Julia Moon, who was
the company’s prima ballerina until 2001, now serving as General Director.===Sports organizations===
Centro Esportivo Nova Esperança, Clube Atlético Sorocaba, Brazilian football teams.
Martial Arts Federation for World Peace Peace Cup International football (soccer)
tournament. Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma, South Korean football
team. The Sunmoon Peace Football Foundation founded
by the UC in 2003 sponsors the Peace Cup, an invitational preseason friendly association
football tournament for club teams, currently held every two years. It is contested by the
eight clubs from several continents, though 12 teams participated in 2009. The first three
competitions were held in South Korea, and the 2009 Peace Cup Andalucia was held in Madrid
and Andalusia, Spain. In 1989, Moon founded Seongnam FC, a South Korean football team.
Yeongpyeong Ski Resort, which hosted the 2018 Winter Olympics===
Political organizations===Freedom Leadership Foundation, an anti-communist
organization in the United States active in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s.
Peace United Family Party, a South Korean political party founded by the Sun Myung Moon,
one of whose main goals is the reunification of Korea.
The International Association of Parliamentarians for Peace (IAPP) works to promote peace and
understanding between potentially hostile nations.
TheConservatives.com, a former political website in partnership with the Heritage Foundation.
The Summit Council for World Peace is an international group active in Moon’s effort to unite North
and South Korea. Coalition for a Free World, anti-Soviet group
active in the 1980s. Washington Institute for Values in Public
Policy CAUSA International is an anti-communist educational
organization created in New York City in 1980 by members of the Unification movement. In
the 1980s it was active in 21 countries. In the United States it sponsored educational
conferences for evangelical and fundamentalist Christian leaders as well as seminars and
conferences for Senate staffers, Hispanic Americans and conservative activists. In 1986
it produced the anti-Communist documentary film Nicaragua Was Our Home.
The International Coalition for Religious Freedom is an activist organization based
in Virginia, the United States. Its president is Dan Fefferman, who has held several leadership
positions within the Unification Church of the United States. Founded in the 1980s, it
has been active in protesting what it considers to be threats to religious freedom by governmental
agencies. International Federation for Victory over
Communism Korean Culture and Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit
organization which in the 1970s staged a public diplomacy campaign in the United States for
South Korea When it was founded in 1964, former U.S. Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight
D. Eisenhower were named as honorary presidents and former Vice President Richard Nixon (then
practicing corporate law) was named as a director. National Committee Against Religious Bigotry
and Racism National Prayer and Fast Committee, which
supported President Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal.
Radio Free Asia.===Businesses===
Members of the Unification movement own a number of businesses in various countries.
In Eastern Europe Unification movement missionaries are using the church’s business ties to win
new converts. David Bromley, a sociologist at Virginia Commonwealth University, said:
“The corporate section is understood to be the engine that funds the mission of the church.
The wealth base is fairly substantial. But if you were to compare it to the LDS Church
or the Catholic Church or other churches that have massive landholdings, this doesn’t look
on a global scale like a massive operation.”====Automotive====
Pyeonghwa Motors is an automobile manufacturer based in Seoul (South Korea) and owned by
the movement. It is involved in a joint-venture with the North Korean Ryonbong General Corp.
The joint venture produces two small cars under license from Fiat, and a pick-up truck
and an SUV using complete knock down kits from Chinese manufacturer Dandong Shuguang.
Pyeonghwa has the exclusive rights to car production, purchase, and sale of used cars
in North Korea. However, most North Koreans are unable to afford a car. Because of the
very small market for cars in the country, Pyeonghwa’s output is reportedly very low.
In 2003, only 314 cars were produced even though the factory had the facilities to produce
up to 10,000 cars a year. Erik van Ingen Schenau, author of the book Automobiles Made in North
Korea, has estimated the company’s total production in 2005 at not more than around 400 units.====Health related====
Cheongshim Hospital, Korean hospital. Il hwa Company, South Korean based producer
of ginseng and related products. Isshin Hospital, Church sponsored hospital
in Japan which practices both modern and traditional Asian medicine.====Manufacturing====
In South Korea the Tongil Group was founded in 1963 by Sun Myung Moon as a nonprofit organization
which would provide revenue for the movement. Its core focus was manufacturing but in the
1970s and 1980s it expanded by founding or acquiring businesses in pharmaceuticals, tourism,
and publishing. In the 1990s Tongil Group suffered as a result of the 1997 Asian Financial
Crisis. By 2004 it was losing money and was $3.6 billion in debt. In 2005 Sun Myung Moon’s
son, Kook-jin Moon was appointed chairman of Tongil Group. Among Tongil Group’s chief
holdings are: The Ilwha Company, which produces ginseng and related products; Ilshin Stone,
building materials; and Tongil Heavy Industries, machine parts including hardware for the South
Korean military. The Tongil Group funds the Tongil Foundation which supports Unification
movement projects including schools and the Little Angels Children’s Folk Ballet of
Korea.====Media====
News World Communications, is an international news media corporation. It was founded in
New York City, in 1976, by Sun Myung Moon. Its first two newspapers, The News World (later
renamed the New York City Tribune) and the Spanish-language Noticias del Mundo, were
published in New York from 1976 until the early 1990s. In 1982 The New York Times described
News World as “the newspaper unit of the Unification Church.” Rev. Moon’s son Hyun Jin Moon is
its chairman of the board. News World Communications owns United Press International, The World
and I, Tiempos del Mundo (Latin America), The Segye Ilbo (South Korea), The Sekai Nippo
(Japan), the Zambezi Times (South Africa), The Middle East Times (Egypt). Until 2008
it published the Washington D.C. based newsmagazine Insight on the News. Until 2010, it owned
the Washington Times. On November 2, 2010, Sun Myung Moon and a group of former Times
editors purchased the paper from News World. AmericanLife TV cable television network formerly
owned by the Unification movement.====Ocean related====
Master Marine, a shipbuilding and fishing company in Alabama; International Seafood
of Kodiak, Alaska; and True World Foods, which runs a major portion of the sushi trade in
the USA. In 2011 Master Marine opened a factory in Las Vegas, Nevada to manufacture a 27-foot
pleasure boat designed by Moon.====Real estate====
In the 1970s the Unification Church of the United States began making major real estate
investments. Church buildings were purchased around the nation. In New York State the Belvedere
Estate, the Unification Theological Seminary, and the New Yorker Hotel were purchased. The
international headquarters of the church was established in New York City. In Washington
D.C. the church purchased a church building from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Saints, and in Seattle the historic Rolland Denny mansion for $175,000 in 1977. In 1991
Donald Trump criticized Unification Church real estate investments as possibly disruptive
to communities. As of December 1994, Unification Church had invested $150 million in Uruguay.
Members own the country’s largest hotel, one of its leading banks, the second-largest newspaper
and two of the largest printing plants. In 2008 church related real estate investment
partnership USP Rockets LLC was active in Richmond, Virginia. In 2011 the church related
National Hospitality Corporation sold the Sheraton National Hotel. U.S. Property Development
Corporation, real estate investmentYongpyong Resort, which hosted the alpine skiing events
for the 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.===United Nations related non-governmental
organizations===Since 2000, Moon has promoted the creation
of an interreligious council at the United Nations as a check and balance to its political-only
structure. Since then King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia and King Juan Carlos I of Spain hosted
officially a program to promote the proposal. Moon’s Universal Peace Federation is in special
consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and a member of
the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, a member of the United Nations Division for
Palestinian Rights, a member of the United Nations Human Rights Council, a member of
the UNHRC, a member of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.
Three of Moon’s non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—Universal Peace Federation, Women’s
Federation for World Peace and Service for Peace—are in consultative status with the
United Nations Economic and Social Council.===Other organizations===
International Relief Friendship Foundation (IRFF)
Joshua House Children’s Centre in Georgetown, Guyana helps homeless and victimized children.
Korean War 60th Anniversary Memorial Committee National Committee Against Religious Bigotry
and Racism The New Hope East Garden Project, agricultural
project in Brazil. Ocean Church
Service For Peace Summit Council for World Peace
Tongil Foundation World Media Association, sponsors trips for
American journalists to Asian countries.===Organizations supported by members of
the Unification movement===American Conference on Religious Movements,
a Rockville, Maryland based group that fights discrimination against new religions. The
group is funded by the Church of Scientology, the Hare Krishna organization, as well as
by Unificationists, who give it $3,000 a month. American Freedom Coalition (AFC), a group
which seeks to unite American conservatives on the state level to work toward common goals.
The coalition, while independent, receives support from the Unification movement. American
Freedom Journal was a publication of the AFC published by Rev. Robert Grant. The journal
was started in 1988 and suspended publication sometime before 1994. Contributors included
Pat Buchanan, Ed Meese, Ben Wattenberg and Jeane Kirkpatrick.Christian Heritage Foundation,
a private, independent charitable foundation based in Virginia that distributes Bibles
and Christian literature to Communist and Third World nations. In 1995 it was given
$3.5 million by the Women’s Federation for World Peace.
Empowerment Network, a pro-faith political action group supported by United States Senator
Joe Lieberman. Foundation for Religious Freedom (Also known
as the New Cult Awareness Network.), an organization affiliated with the Church of Scientology
which states its purpose as “Educating the public as to religious rights, freedoms and
responsibilities.” George Bush Presidential Library. In June 2006 the Houston Chronicle
reported that in 2004 Moon’s Washington Times Foundation gave a $1 million donation to the
George Bush Presidential Library. Liberty University. Sun Myung Moon and his
wife Hak Ja Han helped to financially stabilize the University through two organizations:
News World Communications, which provided a $400,000 loan to the University at 6% interest;
and the Women’s Federation for World Peace, which indirectly contributed $3.5 million
toward the school’s debt. Married Priests Now!, is an advocacy group
headed by Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo, who was himself married by Moon. MPN is a liberal
Catholic organization calling for relaxing the rules concerning marriage in the Latin
Rite Catholic priesthood. Million Family March, 2000 rally in Washington,
D.C. sponsored by the FFWPU and The Nation of Islam.
National Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC), was given $500,000 by CAUSA International
to finance an anticommunist lobbying campaign. University of Bridgeport of Bridgeport, Connecticut.
In 1992, following the longest faculty strike in United States academic history, the University
of Bridgeport agreed to an arrangement with the Professors World Peace Academy whereby
the university would be subsidized by PWPA in exchange for control of the university.
The initial agreement was for $50 million, and a majority of board members were to be
PWPA members. The next University of Bridgeport president was PWPA president and Holocaust
theologian Richard L. Rubenstein (from 1995–1999), and subsequently former U.S. HSA-UWC president
Neil Albert Salonen (2000–present). World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations
(WANGO)==See also==List of Unification movement people
Moonie (nickname) Unification Church of the United States

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